Karl Jaspers, Horst Tappe/Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. According to Sartre, the foremost philosopher of midth-century France, the method of philosophy is existential psychoanalysis—i.e., the analysis of the “fundamental project” in which human existence consists. “For philosophy to rule it is not necessary that philosophers be rulers, nor even for rulers to be philosophers. For philosophy to rule it is sufficient for it to exist; that. Jump to Sartre's philosophy - Existentialism (/ˌɛɡzɪˈstɛnʃəlɪzəm/) is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences, shared the belief that philosophical thinking begins with the human subject—not merely the thinking subject, but the acting ‎List of existentialists · ‎Authenticity (philosophy) · ‎Christian existentialism.


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Insofar as I am in love, then, I seek to deny her freedom. Insofar, however, as I wish to be loved by her, then she must be free to choose me as existential philosophy beloved. If she is free, she escapes my love; if not, she cannot love.

Love here is a case study in the basic forms of social relation.

Existentialism - By Branch / Doctrine - The Basics of Philosophy

Sartre is thus moving from an entirely individualistic frame of reference my self, my freedom and my projects towards a consideration of the self in concrete relations with others.

Sartre is working through — in a way he would shortly see as being inadequate — the issues presented by the Hegelian dialectic of recognition, which we mentioned above. This 'hell' of endlessly circling acts of freedom and objectification is brilliantly dramatised in Sartre's play No Exit.

A few years later existential philosophy the end of the s, Sartre wrote what has been published as Notebooks for an Ethics. Sartre influenced in the meantime by the criticisms of Merleau-Ponty and de Beauvoir, and by his increasing commitment to collectivist politics elaborated greatly his existentialist account of relations with others, taking the Hegelian idea more seriously.

He no longer thinks of concrete relations so pessimistically. While Nietzsche and Heidegger both suggest the possibility of an authentic being with others, both leave it seriously under-developed. For our purposes, there are two key ideas in the Notebooks.

The first is that my projects can be realised only with the cooperation of others; however, that cooperation presupposes their freedom I cannot make her love meand their judgements about me must concern me. Therefore permitting and existential philosophy the freedom of others must be a central part of all my projects.

Sartre thus commits himself against any political, social or economic forms of subjugation. Second, there is the possibility of a form of social organisation and action in which each individual freely gives him or herself over to a joint project: An authentic existence, for Sartre, therefore means two things.


First, it is something like a 'style' of existing — one that at every moment is anxious, and that means fully aware of the absurdity and fragility of its freedom.

Second, though, there is some minimal level of content to any authentic project: Subsequently a star Normalienne, she was a writer, philosopher, feminist, lifelong partner existential philosophy Jean-Paul Sartre, notorious for her anti-bourgeois way of living and her free sexual relationships which included among others a passionate affair with the American writer Nelson Algren.

The debate rests of course upon the fundamental misconception that wants a body of work to exist and existential philosophy independently of or uninfluenced by its intellectual environment.


In Existential philosophy and Nothingness, the groundwork of the Existentialist movement in France was published. There Sartre gave an account of freedom as ontological constitutive of the subject.


One cannot but be free: There, as well as in an essay from the same year titled 'The war has taken place', Merleau-Ponty heavily criticizes the Sartrean stand, criticising it existential philosophy a reformulation of basic Stoic tenets.

One cannot assume freedom in isolation from the freedom of others. Moreover action takes place within a certain historical existential philosophy. For Merleau-Ponty the subjective free-will is always in a dialectical relationship with its historical context.