IN VIVO MODELS OF INFLAMMATION EBOOK DOWNLOAD!
NEUROFIT offers a translational in vivo model of inflammation-induced cognitive deficit. Inflammation is produced in mice by single administration of a. In Vivo Models of Inflammation provides the biomedical researcher in both the pharmaceutical industry and academia with a description of the state of the art animal model systems used to emulate diseases with components of inflammation. Therefore, in vivo models of inflammation are essential to study the pathophysiology and to evaluate immunomodulatory therapies. Intravenous.
|Author:||Demond Erdman I|
|Published:||26 March 2016|
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These offer unique advantages for modeling different aspects of human disease. CIA involves breach of immunological tolerance resulting in systemic autoantibody-driven arthritis, while AIA results in local resolving inflammatory flares and articular T cell-mediated damage.
Despite limitations that in vivo models of inflammation to all animal models of human disease, CIA and AIA have been instrumental in identifying pathogenic mediators, immune cell subsets and stromal cell responses that determine disease onset, progression, and severity.
Acute and Chronic Inflammation Models
Moreover, these models have enabled investigation of disease phases not easily studied in patients and have served as testing beds for novel biological therapies, including cytokine blockers and in vivo models of inflammation molecule inhibitors of intracellular signaling that have revolutionized rheumatoid arthritis treatment.
Mice at different stages of inflammation were imaged using a small animal ultrasound system following i. In vivo imaging results were correlated with ex vivo immunofluorescence and histology.
Induction of acute inflammation resulted in an increase in the targeted US signal from 5.
Immunofluorescence showed significant increase in the percentage of P- and E-selectin positive vessels at day 1 P-selectin: Acute inflammation can be accurately measured in a clinically relevant murine model of chronic IBD using ultrasound molecular imaging with a dual P- and E- selectin-targeted contrast agent.
Targeted ultrasound imaging, P- and E-selectin targeted microbubbles, acute inflammation on chronic colitis background, DCE-US imaging Introduction Inflammatory bowel disease IBD is a complex group of chronic and relapsing diseases including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis which involve in vivo models of inflammation in mucosal immunity and gastrointestinal physiology.
It currently affects approximately 1.
In Vivo Models of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Colitis-Associated Cancer.
Due to the recurrent nature of the disease, patients need to be monitored multiple times over many years to assess location and extent of disease activity.
Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and monitoring of IBD. Endoscopy with biopsy is the reference standard; however, it is in vivo models of inflammation and cannot access all areas of the colon and small bowel [ 5 ].
Therefore, alternative, non-invasive imaging modalities are being used to complement endoscopy for monitoring the disease. In particular, patients with acute symptoms and potential complications suspected, computed tomography CT is increasingly being used in vivo models of inflammation to its broad accessibility and robust scanning results [ 6 ].
- In Vivo Models for Inflammatory Arthritis. - PubMed - NCBI
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However, CT is less suitable in children and young adults for multiple repetitive exams to assess disease activity due to the cumulative exposure to ionization radiation inherent to the technology [ 78 ].
Magnetic resonance imaging MRI does not expose patients to ionizing radiation; however, disadvantages include relative high cost and reduced accessibility, limitations in claustrophobic patients and patients with pace makers, as well as the in vivo models of inflammation to sedate children who cannot remain stationary for the duration of the exam [ 910 ].
Ultrasound is a cross sectional imaging modality routinely used for bowel imaging in pediatric and adult patients with appropriate acoustic windows [ 1112 in vivo models of inflammation.
While ultrasound is widely available does not expose patients to ionizing radiation, experienced sonographers are required to reduce variability in accuracy for identifying disease location and severity [ 11 ]. Ultrasound molecular imaging utilizes micron-sized, gas filled contrast microbubbles MB that are modified to bind proteins on vascular endothelial cells that are upregulated in various disease processes including inflammation [ 13 ].
One of the hallmarks of IBD is the recruitment of large numbers of immune cells into active sites of inflammation within the bowel [ 14 ]. In order for immune cells to traffic into these sites, they have to first exit circulation.
This extravasation is accomplished through a complex set of interactions in vivo models of inflammation the trafficking immune cells and adhesion proteins expressed on the surface of vascular endothelial cells which allow for rolling, adhesion, and eventual transendothelial migration [ 15 ].
Of particular importance to leukocyte rolling are the adhesion proteins P- and E-selectin.
Both selectins share the same ligand, PSGL-1, which is expressed on the surface of trafficking leukocytes. The interaction of P- and E-selectin with PSGL-1 slows down the in vivo models of inflammation leukocytes enough to allow for interaction with surface-bound chemokines on the endothelial cells, and initiation of firm adhesion [ 15 ].
In Vivo Models of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Colitis-Associated Cancer. - PubMed - NCBI
Ultrasound molecular imaging can take advantage of this inflammatory mechanism by using MB that contain PSGL-1 [ 1617 ]. Previous studies have shown that selectin targeted ultrasound imaging allows accurate and objective assessment of inflammation in acute murine models of colitis; however, inflammation in these mice was initiated de novo in normal colons [ 1718 ].
In contrast, patients with IBD often present with acute inflammatory exacerbations in regions that were in vivo models of inflammation in a clinically quiescent chronic inflammation state.
The ability to identify and accurately monitor treatment response in regions of acute inflammation has important implications for the clinical management of patients with IBD.